A Companion to the Ancient Near East by Daniel C. Snell

By Daniel C. Snell

A significant other to the traditional close to East bargains scholars and common readers a complete review of close to jap civilization from the Bronze Age to the conquests of Alexander the nice.

  • Covers the civilizations of the Sumerians, Hittites, Babylonians, Assyrians, Israelites and Persians
  • Places specific emphasis on social and cultural historical past
  • Covers the legacy of the traditional close to East within the medieval and glossy worlds
  • Provides an invaluable bibliographical advisor to this box of study

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Tiglath-pileser III (744–727) defeated Urartu and its NeoHittite allies and conquered most of Syria and northern Palestine. He then penetrated deeply into Media and then finally defeated the Chaldean tribes and proclaimed himself king of Babylon. The empire was organized in small provinces with no possibility for ‘‘feudal’’ fragmentation, and the celebrative apparatus of both texts and images proliferated. The borders of the empire were extended farther under Shalmaneser V (726–722), Sargon II (721–705), and Sennacherib (704–681), but in different ways in various directions.

And it inherited from Media important features of court life, Historical Overview 19 and probably the Zoroastrian religion. The empire included the Babylonian templecities and the Phoenician city-states as different but equally acceptable centers for running the economy. At a symbolic level, it is significant that the celebrative inscription of Darius I (521–486) was written in three different languages, Babylonian, Elamite, and the new Persian script, and that the seat of the court shifted seasonally between the highland cities of Ecbatana, modern Hamadan, and Persepolis and the lowlands cities of Susa and Babylon, as a formal acknowledgment of the role that the four regions of Elam, Babylonia, Media, and Persia played in the building of the empire.

But when outside the area of control of the central agency, the merchants were free to negotiate for profit, and could also use their money for loans at interest and loans with personal guarantees. The competition in trade networks was a factor in the struggles between the most important city-states, especially during the final phase of the Early Dynastic III. In some cases the competition was settled by agreement and delimitation of the respective networks as in the treaty between Ebla and Abarsal, in other cases by recourse to war as between Mari and Ebla.

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