Afghanistan Cave Complexes 1979-2004 by Mir Bahmanyar

By Mir Bahmanyar

Following the Soviet invasion in 1979, the Mujahideen defenders of Afghanistan constructed and bolstered many traditional cave structures to take advantage of as provide bases and protecting positions. The Taliban and Al Qaeda additional constructed those positions in the course of the Nineties. Following the occasions of September eleven, 2001, those cave structures have once again come to prominence and websites akin to Tora Bora ("Black Dust," a chain of person caves) and Zhawar Kili (a huge complicated in jap Afghanistan) have featured in information headlines worldwide. This identify presents an in depth research and visible documentation of those caves and underground platforms. It additionally discusses the Coalition's tactical method of dislodging the enemy from those fortified positions.

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Will Northeast Asia avoid pandemics of infectious and parasitic diseases? How will the region deal with population ageing? How will it adjust to the shrinking population in the Russian Far East? Ultimately, how will Northeast Asian policy-makers guide changes in population stocks and flows in ways that will effectively balance state security concerns with the well-being of the populations of the region? 101 Most governments give scant attention to how the welfare of migrants is linked to economic development and state security.

Moreover, as of 2003 no Northeast Asian countries had ratified the 1990 Convention on the Protection of Rights of Migrant Workers and Family Members, the 2000 Protocol to Prevent, Suppress, and Punish Trafficking of Persons or the 2000 Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants. 1). China successfully engineered rapid mortality and fertility declines in the second half of the twentieth century. It is now experiencing massive rural–urban migration, rapid population ageing and increasing social and economic diversity.

14. David M. Heer, ‘‘International Migration’’, in Edgar F. V. Montgomery, managing editor, Encyclopedia of Sociology, Second Edition, Vol. 2, New York: Macmillan Reference, 2000, pp. 1431–1438 and Philip Martin and James Widgren, ‘‘International Migration: A Global Challenge’’, Population Bulletin 55, Population Reference Bureau, Washington, DC, 1996, p. 19. 15. Saskia Sassen, The Mobility of Labour and Capital, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988 and Douglas S. Massey, ‘‘International Migration at the Dawn of the Twenty-first Century: The Role of the State’’, Population and Development Review 25 (3), 1999, pp.

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