Albania In Transition: The Rocky Road To Democracy (Nations by Elez Biberaj

By Elez Biberaj

In early 1997, Albania’s transition to democracy suffered a significant setback while pyramid schemes sparked violent unrest, plunging the rustic into its worst political and fiscal quandary because the downfall of communism. The uprisings and next elections, within which the Socialist celebration gained a landslide victory, have made front-page information within the foreign neighborhood. And Albania’s proximity to the Yugoslavian melee and historical past of maximum radical communism make it a country to watch.In Albania in Transition, Elez Biberaj presents a accomplished political profile of Albania due to the fact 1989. He charts Albania’s transition from one get together to many, from a command financial system to a industry economic climate, and its transition to a countrywide protection country in an unpredictable, post–Cold struggle overseas defense regime.

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The movement of 'from above' and 'from below' is inevitably an antagonistic process, although the contours of this antagonism may not follow institutional demarcations: it can be displaced into the state apparatus itself. Certainly the movement of history constantly defies theory, yet the term 'popular power' conceals the real antagonisms and difficulties. A rebellion does not cease to be a rebellion just because it is channelled towards the state. The drive towards selfdetermination remains alive, although it is likely to be increasingly suppressed to the degree that the state structures become consolidated.

For a start, we are probably not very good at violence. Violence is not part of the society that we want to create and we are unlikely to be able to match capitalist forces in violence. s Dignity is our ground and violence is the negation of dignity, wherever it comes from. Perhaps the key issue is not violence, but the setting of the agenda, seizing the initiative. The point of the crack is that it is a rupture: not just a response to capitalist aggression but the attempt to move beyond it, to create now a different set 54 55 '1'11 ' most obvio us force of social cohesion that confronts the ' 1":1 'ks i the state.

Above all, it can not be a question of purity. In a struggle in-againstand-beyond capitalism, there is no purity: what matters rather is the direction of the struggle, the movement against-and-beyond. Is the answer, then, to take control of the state and either neutralise it or use it to spread our cracks? Can we not convert the state itself into an anti-capitalist crack? Indeed, should we not focus our activity on organising to gain control of the state and turn it into an anti-capitalist crack?

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